Historically, women's education only served the partriarchal purpose of making good wives and mothers, particularly in much of the developing world. In recent times, empowerment and redistribution within the family and society have come to be accepted as goals of women’s education to contest oppression and reducing gender-based inequalities.
But it is noted that much of the govt. initiatives on education for women as tied to the agendas of the nation, while issues of caste, class, ethnicity, race and sexuality are rarely addressed in formal institutions of learning, inhibiting critical engagements with gender as a social category and as lived experience. Therefore,questions of gender equality and education have to be located within new policy discourses of women’s empowerment, to address local, regional and global experiences and analyses of girls’ and women’s education in formal and non-formal settings.